Hereke carpets reflecting mostly the style characteristics of the period constitute an important part of the National Palaces Collection. But as the constructions of the palaces, pavilions and the summer palaces date long ago from 1891 when the Hereke Factory begun the production of the carpets, considering the trade based on the political relations of the period and in the light of the objects found in the depots of the National Palaces and as to the evaluation during the formation period of the depots, it appears that the first carpet examples in the decoration of the palaces, pavilions and the summer palaces are made of English, Uşak and Gordes carpets. Before the beginning of the carpet production by the factory, the fact that many carpets were bought from various places and countries for the palaces, can be followed from the archives documents as regards the dates and the types. Among them European carpets named as “Frenk” (mostly French carpets), English carpets, Gördes carpets and Uşak carpets stand for the mostly bought types. Apart them, in the collection, you can find among local carpets Sivas, Demirci, Kayseri, Avanos, Kırşehir, Kula carpet and prayer rugs. Besides, Feshane Factory in Defterdar ensured carpets to the palaces.
In the collection among the carpets with an eastern origin, Iran, Hamedan, Khorasan, Siraz, Tabriz, Keşan, Samarkand carpets are also found. Especially, the examples of Samarkand carpets with a rare color and size are found today in Yıldız Chalet, Dolmabahçe Palace and Beylerbeyi Palace. Tebriz carpets, Şiraz prayer rugs, Keşan carpet and prayer rugs among these kind of carpets, continue to exist as the eastern representative of the “Last Ottoman Palaces and Pavilions” that gather the eastern and Western civilizations. Among the carpets of European origin of the collection, for instance French Aubusson, Savonnerie carpets and English, Brussels Greece (1 example) carpets are found.
The collection that was formed through buying, the production of Hereke Factory and presents, was transported by the carriage of the objects between the palaces and the pavilions and finally gained its actual appearance.
SELECTIONS FROM THE CARPET COLLECTION
Among the most popular art works in the National Palaces Collection, the scheme of the Hereke carpet unique by its measure and conception is made by Emil Meinz, the palace painter, in 1898 and it is situated in Yıldız Şale number 1 Ceremony Hall. The conception of the carpet is made together by the pictures of the roof and of the wall decorating the ceremony hall. In the center of the carpet, together with the ellipse locket and in total three lockets are conceived by taking into account the projections of the hall’s chandeliers. Another feature of the art work is that both in Yıldız Şale Ceremony Hall and in some of the rooms and halls of Dolmabahçe Palace, it is weaved as to cover all over the ground. The middle section of the carpet is made of one part, the side bordure and the emerging tower are made as supplement. The supplement parts are situated skillfully with a qualified handwork and the wholeness of the pattern is ensured. The Hereke Palace carpets, the stylized production of the Hereke Factory, are designed in unique pattern and color. Cream-colored ground, corner stuffs with red ground, large curls in rumi style found on lockets and on the corners are seen as the classical elements in Hereke palace carpets.
As long as the lockets, emblems and the filling of the corners are concerned, rumi style is used. On four sides of the oval locket emblems are situated. Among the large curls in rumi style on the locket we can see scattered flower motifs in naturalist style. The large bordure ın the middle is made of hatayi and Chinese cloud motifs on a cream ground. Hatay is continue alternately with cream and blue ground, the distance and the sides is made of a large rumi style ornated with Chinese clouds. The fine bordures situated on both sides of the large bordure are separated into sections. The large bordure in the middle of the outside bordure is made of emblem and rose motifs.
Woolen Hereke Carpet
With approximately 124 m² it bears the characteristic to be the biggest carpet in Dolmabahçe Palace. This carpet with locket and in relief motifs is weaved completely in European style. The carpet with the oval locket, oyster motifs, with its S an C curlings, with its design reflecting a painting by the use of different tones of the same color, is the best application where the Western patterns are reflected. In some sections by the cutting high of naps, the motifs are given as in relief. In Dolmabahçe Palace, the first examples of European style carpets in relief are English and French carpets. Later, with the orders of Abdülhamid II in Hereke carpets in relief that look like them, velvet carpets as named in the documents are weaved. In a corner, “Hereke year 13181 is inscribed.